84. Those who read the Word attentively cannot help noticing the use of double expressions which seem like repetitions of the same thing; as for instance, brother [and companion, poor] and needy, wilderness and desert, void and emptiness, foe and enemy, sin and iniquity, anger and wrath, nation and people, joy and gladness, mourning and weeping, justice* (or righteousness) and judgment, and so on. These appear to be synonymous expressions, when in fact they are not. For the words brother, poor, wilderness, [void], foe, sin, anger, nation, joy, mourning and justice are used with reference to good, and in the opposite sense, to evil; while the words companion, needy, desert, emptiness, enemy, iniquity, wrath, people, gladness, weeping and judgment are used with reference to truth, and in the opposite sense, to falsity. Yet it seems to the reader who is ignorant of the truth involved that poor and needy, wilderness and desert, void and emptiness, foe and enemy, are one and the same thing; likewise sin and iniquity, anger and wrath, nation and people, joy and gladness, mourning and weeping, justice and judgment; whereas they are not one, but become one by conjunction.
In the Word also many other things are closely associated, as fire and flame, gold and silver, brass and iron, wood and stone, bread and water, bread and wine, purple and fine linen, and so on. This is because fire, gold, brass, wood, bread and purple signify good, while flame, silver, iron, stone, water, wine and fine linen signify truth. In like manner it is said that men should love God with all the heart and with all the soul; and also that God will create in man a new heart and a new spirit, for heart is used with reference to the good of love, and soul, of truth from that good. There are moreover some expressions which, because they partake of both good and truth, are used by themselves without the addition of others; but these and many other things are evident only to the angels, and to those who, while they perceive the natural sense, understand also the spiritual sense. * Justice, righteousness: Both these words are used, as in the A.V., to render the Latin word Justitia.